Kashmiris have been demanding a solution to the unresolved dispute over whether the territory should be independent, or a part of India or Pakistan since the subcontinent gained independence from the British in 1947.
In 1988, after years of tightening space for political dissent in the Indian-administered portion of Kashmir, protests broke out after a disputed state election months earlier. At the centre of the tensions was the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF), a pro-independence group that wanted Kashmir to be separate from both India and Pakistan.
More groups soon joined the fray, with the Hizb-ul-Mujahideen taking a leading role in protests and attacks on Indian security forces. The JKLF renounced violence in 1994.
In the years to follow, several other armed groups would emerge – some drawing their support from within Indian-administered Kashmir, while others based themselves in Pakistan.
Al Jazeera’s Imran Khan reports from Muzaffarabad.
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